The aim of this work (Paradoxes of equality. Explorations and hypotheses on the Norwegian school system) is to provide an overview of the Norwegian school system and to formulate some hypotheses concerning the problems that mostly concern the community of experts, political decision makers and the public opinion. Particular emphasis is given to the school’s history and the spread of literacy, promoted by religious movements, also the structure of the school and training system is examined, highlighting the main problems, especially the one’s linked to the evaluation system and the high school dropout rate in upper secondary school.
Finally, we try and understand if some Norwegian cultural characteristics, in particular the feeling of egalitarianism, are the basis of the decision not to increase school support in compulsory education, contrary to what happened, with excellent results, in Finland.
Concluding it is showned how the Norwegian school system implements inclusive policies that mainly aim to find a teaching system able to adapt to the characteristics and wishes of all students. In this perspective, special education, which would alter the characteristics and devices of teaching according to the disadvantaged situations of some students, would be perceived as a failure of the school inclusivism and a failure of the whole school system.